At the University of Arizona, we are building a program to bridge the gap between laboratory- and field-scale studies by utilizing the unique infrastructure of Biosphere 2. Biosphere 2 offers unique opportunities for the exploration of complex questions in Earth sciences because of its ability to combine varying scales, precise manipulation and fine monitoring in controlled experiments. By building upon the large external scientific network at the University of Arizona in hydrology, geology, geochemistry, ecology, biology, physics, engineering and atmospheric sciences, we are developing a strong multidisciplinary team of researchers who are undertaking the design and deployment of top-notch science to address complex questions in environmental sciences. Projects for 2022 REU students include:
Ecosystem Science, Renewable Energy Production, Food, and Water Sustainability
Greg Barron-Gafford, Department of Geography and Development, and Biosphere 2. External forces (like environmental and human factors) and internal characteristics (like plant ecophysiology) determine where species can live and thrive. This nexus is critical for tackling one of the greatest challenges facing our future - how to simultaneously maximize renewable energy production and food production without degrading the environment. The "Agrivoltaics" installation at B2 blends renewable energy production from solar photovoltaics with agriculture to study the impacts of this novel approach on plant function, water use, and biomass production.
Tropical Forest Dynamics and Trace Gas Fluxes
Joost van Haren, Biosphere 2. Tropical forests are among the most dynamic ecosystems in the world, but their responses to climate change are uncertain. B2 provides an opportunity to study tropical ecosystems under future conditions (increased temperature, decreased precipitation); the large enclosure and artificial rainfall allows precise determination of water and carbon movement through the biome. Students use the B2 tropical forest to assess plant, hydrological, and carbon cycling responses to altered temperature and precipitation.
Microbes as the engineers of the soil, plants, and atmosphere
Laura Meredith, SNRE. How do soil microbiomes affect the biosphere, and specifically, its atmosphere? Our research focuses on interactions between ecosystems and the atmosphere that affect climate, air quality, and ecosystem health. I study the role of soil microbiomes in ecosystems and their immense capacity to transform matter in ways that release, or take up, trace gases. My group measures microbial cycling of trace gases that influence climate (e.g., nitrous oxide, methane, carbon dioxide) and mediate biological interactions belowground (e.g., volatile organic compounds). Our research aims to measure and decode new microbial signals in the soil in the Biosphere 2 Tropical Rainforest and the Landscape Evolution Observatory. The student(s) involved in this project will have the opportunity to learn methods in microbial genomics, bioinformatics, and analytical atmospheric chemistry by contributing to ongoing research campaigns and data analysis.
Calcification & biomineralization under a changing climate
Diane Thompson, Department of Geosciences (GEOS). The Biosphere 2 Ocean (B2O) mesocosm provides a unique opportunity to isolate the impacts of temperature and acidification on calcifying reef organisms at ecosystem scale. Leveraging this scale and control, this project will assess the impact of changing ocean conditions on the growth of calcifying reef organisms, and in turn, the climate records generated from carbonate skeletons (e.g., corals, coralline algae, bivalves, and foraminifera). Controlled experimental studies are required to understand the processes by which geochemical signals are incorporated into the carbonate skeleton during the calcification process (“biomineralization”), and how these processes change as a function of calcification rate, species and environmental conditions. This project will provide REU students with hand-on research experience at the interface of reef ecology, geochemistry, and paleoclimatology in the largest experimental ocean facility in the world, working with leading paleoclimate researchers in GEOS.
Biological weathering in the Critical Zone
Jon Chorover, Department of Environmental Science (ENVS). Chorover’s lab provides opportunities to investigate (bio)geochemical aspects of critical zone evolution, including work at two potential sites within the UA-led Catalina Mountains (AZ) and Landscape Evolution Observatory (Biosphere 2). Students would couple field work and laboratory studies to understand subsurface biogeochemical processes, including the effects of plants and microbes on the rate and trajectory of rock transformation to soil.
Mineral weathering, soil formation and carbon sequestration as influenced by water flow and biota
Katerina Dontsova, ENVS and B2. Projects at Biosphere 2 would focus on soil formation processes and development of subsurface heterogeneity through hydrologic-geochemical coupling using direct measurement and geochemical modelling: what happens in the basalt covering LEO slopes as a result of water flow and biological activity; what is the role of slope position, water residence time, and microbial activity on total weathering, chemical denudation, formation of high surface-area secondary solids, and accumulation of organic and inorganic carbon.
Landscape evolution and soil formation
Craig Rasmussen, ENVS. oil-landscape systems provide a powerful record of dryland system response to climate change important for understanding both modern and paleo- human-environment interactions. Our lab is working to document how paleoenvironmental change was recorded in soil‐landscape systems across the Sonoran Desert, using a combination of field sampling, laboratory analyses of soil chemical, physical, and mineralogical analyses, and geochronological tools such as radiocarbon dating. The REU student will work with a team of graduate and undergraduate students sampling and analyzing soil samples collected from various locations across southern Arizona. The data provide a basic understanding of soil‐landscape evolution and paleoenvironmental across the Sonoran Desert.
Geomorphology and land use dynamics of drylands
Jason Field, SNRE. The overall theme of the research for this project will be related to the effects of warmer temperatures, both chronic and acute, on land surface characteristics such as soil moisture and associated changes such as vegetation die-off. The effects of heat waves will be an area of particular focus. Approaches may include revaluating historical events in the context of heat wave conditions, not just chronic warming; hydrological modeling of soil moisture dynamics under chronic and acute warming; and evaluation of microclimate change associated with vegetation die-off. Data and literature synthesis will also be applied to link land surface responses to chronic and acute warming effects during drought.
Water transit time and silicate water-rock interactions
Peter Troch and Minseok Kim, Department of Hydrology and Atmospheric Sciences and Biosphere 2. Understanding the transit time of water, the time water spends traveling through a catchment, helps us infer flow pathways inside catchments and fluid-rock interaction such as the weathering of silicate minerals. The Landscape Evolution Observatory (LEO) hillslopes at Biosphere 2 provide unique opportunities to conduct experiments to estimate water transit time and monitor soil water movements and soil water chemistry inside the hillslope at the unprecedented spatio-temporal resolution. We will conduct an experiment in LEO and estimate water transit time using a novel method we developed. This information will further inform the weathering of silicate minerals inside the system. Students involved in this project will have the opportunity to learn how we conduct experiments, monitor the hillslopes, and analyze the isotopic composition and chemistry of water samples. The students will also have opportunities to learn hydrologic flow and transport theories and models.
Microbial-organic matter interactions and controls in dynamically changing systems
Malak Tfaily, ENVS. My research interests revolve around terrestrial interactions of geochemical and biological processes, at multiple scales (pore-to-ecosystem scale) and the resulting impact on the whole ecosystem. We use a combination of modern analytical molecular (high resolution mass spectrometry, etc.), geochemical (wet chemistry and gas flux), and isotopic techniques (natural abundance, and isotope enrichment) to answer where and how organic matter degradation and formation takes place in different ecosystems. Students would couple field work and laboratory studies to understand and examine the direct relationship between organic matter composition, the activity of the biological community, the geochemical signature of the activity and how that signature may translate between environments.